Louis le Brocquy, HRHA (1916-2012)

Louis le Broquy 2The Dublin-born artist Louis le Brocquy is recognised both in Ireland and around the world as one of the great Irish artists of the 20th century. A master of painting (in figurative and abstract genres), illustration, printmaking, tapestry design and set design, his prodigious work has received widespread international praise during a career spanning seventy years. Awarded the Premio Acquisito Internationale for his painting A Family, which was later included in the historic exhibition ‘Fifty Years of Modern Art’ at Brussels, World Fair 1958, le Brocquy is widely acclaimed for his portrait art, notably his series of Heads of literary figures and fellow artists, which include William Butler Yeats, James Joyce, and his friends Samuel Beckett, Francis Bacon and Seamus Heaney.

In addition, his earlier Tinker subjects and Grey period pictures have attracted enormous attention in the international and Irish art market, propelling him into the top group of four modern painters of Ireland and Britain along with Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud and David Hockney. At home, Le Brocquy was one of the few painters to be included in the Permanent Irish Collection of the National Gallery of Ireland.

Le Brocquy first studied chemistry at Trinity College, Dublin, before entering the family business in 1934. Four years later, he left Ireland for two years to study paintings by the great masters in the National Gallery (London), the Louvre Museum (Paris), Venice and Geneva. He returned to Ireland in 1940, to begin a career as a self-taught artist. Along with other contemporary Irish artists, such as Mainie Jellett (1897-1944), Evie Hone (1894-1955), Nora McGuinness (1901-80), and others, he was a founder-member of the Irish Exhibition of Living Art in 1943. Three years later, in 1946, he moved to London where he had his first solo exhibition in 1947. In 1958, he married another Irish artist, Anne Madden, and settled in the south of France.

Louis le BrocquyLe Brocquy’s prodigious painting career has included seven overlapping periods: his Tinker paintings 1946-1948; his Grey Period 1950-1956; his White Period 1956-1966; his Head Series 1964-2006; his Procession Series 1984-1992; his Human Images 1996-2004; and latterly his Homage Paintings 2005-2006, which commemorate some of his favourite predecessors such as Velazquez, Francisco de Goya, Paul Cézanne and Edouart Manet.

In addition, his still-life painting includes: Still life with Book and Penny (1941); Still life with Apples (1951); Study for Flowers (1953); Still life with Grapes (1955); Fruit Now and Then (1970), Fruit in the Hand (1974).

He was a keen student of the Renaissance paintings of Titian (1485-1576), as well as the nineteenth century French artists Edgar Degas (1834-1917) and Edouard Manet (1832-1883). Above all, he was inspired by the great Spanish painters El Greco (1541-1614), Velázquez (1599-1660) and Goya (1746-1828) for their use of whites and greys.

A major focus of Le Brocquy’s art is the human face and head, which he sees as merely the physical iceberg-like manifestation of the spirit which lies beneath. In these pictures, he tries to (as he says) “paint the head image from the inside out”, in order to convey the potential reality of the interior being.

During his long career, Le Brocquy illustrated the work of numerous Irish writers, including Seamus Heaney and Samuel Beckett, as well as Thomas Kinsella for whose translation of The Táin Le Brocquy produced a range of celebrated lithographic brush drawings. Other works illustrated by Le Brocquy include The Playboy of the Western World by J.M. Synge (1970); The Gododdin by Desmond O’Grady (1977); and The Dubliners by James Joyce (1986). In addition, he created the set and costume design for Asmus’s critically acclaimed 1988 production of Waiting for Godot, at the Gate Theatre, Dublin.

In addition to his mastery of painting, printmaking, illustration and set-design, Le Brocquy was also a world class designer of tapestry art. Indeed, in the opinion of some critics he was a seminal figure in the rebirth of this art form. First introduced to the medium in 1948, as a result of an invitation by the Edinburgh Tapestry Weavers, he later collaborated with the long-established French company Tabard Frères & Soeurs to produce tapestries like: Travellers 1948, Allegory (1950), the Eden series (1951-52), the Inverted series (1948-99), the Cúchulainn series (1973-1999), and the Garden series (2000). Examples of Le Brocquy’s tapestries can be viewed in several art museums including the Irish Museum of Modern Art and the National Gallery of Ireland.

Today, Le Brocquy is regarded as one of the most innovative representatives of visual art of Ireland. His works have been shown in some of the best art museums in North America, Japan, Australia, France, Spain, Belgium, Slovenia and Mexico, and have been the subject of retrospectives in a number of major galleries, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art (1966). His paintings are represented in many public collections, such as New York’s Guggenheim Museum and the London Tate.

Le Brocquy was an elected Saoi of Aosdana, and in 2007, he was conferred with The Freedom of the City of Dublin, the highest award the City can bestow. He died on April 25, 2012.

The auction record for a work by Louis Le Brocquy was set in 2000, when his oil painting, entitled Travelling Woman with Newspaper (1947), was sold at Sotheby’s, in London, for £1,158,500. Note: In 2002, Louis Le Brocquy’s masterpiece A Family (1951) was sold by private treaty for £1.7 million

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Francis Bacon (1909-1992)

francis-bacon-screaming-popeFrancis Bacon (1909-1992) was an Irish figurative painter, influenced in his earlier years by Picasso and surrealism, whose unique expressionist style of painting, which emerged during the 1950s, featured pictures of people screaming or in pain, often portrayed inside bathrooms or cages. His tortured, nightmarish imagery projected a world of violent and shocking humanity. His talent as a modern expressionist artist blossomed alongside a shambolic personal life, marked by extreme sensuality, gambling and alcoholism. Even so, he was one of the most famous figures in Irish painting and a unique figure in the history of Irish art.

Francis Bacon was born in Dublin. His parents were English and moved several times between England and Ireland. A shy asthmatic child with an effeminate manner, Bacon had little formal schooling, or instruction in either drawing or painting, being taught instead by private tutors. In his late teens, his effeminacy led to the beginning of a lifetime of gay encounters with rich men, many of whom would contribute financially to his career as a painter.

Bacon’s first artistic successes were as a designer of furniture, rugs and interiors, although he maintained his interest and activity in fine art, being particularly stimulated by Picasso’s Neo-Classical drawings as well as his paintings like Les Baigneuses and Le Baiser. In 1933 he achieved his first real sale when his oil painting Crucifixion (1933) was bought by Sir Michael Sadler. In 1934 Bacon staged his first solo exhibition – “Paintings by Francis Bacon” – at the new Transition gallery, displaying seven oils and half a dozen gouache compositions. For a while he painted comparatively little after his solo show in 1934, and destroyed many of the canvases he did complete during the 1930’s and early 1940’s. Not until 1944 did be begin to paint intensively again.

The oil and pastel painting Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944) heralds the beginning of his mature style and includes elements that he returned to many times, such as: the triptych format, the open mouth, and the distorted imagery. When first exhibited in 1945, the painting caused a sensation, and established Bacon among art critics as a major (if controversial) exponent of modern art. Bacon followed this with another masterpiece, Painting (1946).

Francis Bacon 2In 1949, Bacon’s series of six paintings (Head I to Head VI) were exhibited at what was, in effect, a one-man show at the Hanover Gallery. with Study from the Human Body (1949) and Study for Portrait (1949) formed the core of the show with four other paintings by Bacon. His first solo show outside Britain was held in 1953 at Durlacher Brothers, New York, and his first retrospective was held at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, 1955.

Another landmark painting was his Study after Velazquez’s Portrait of Pope Innocent X (1953) which is a distorted version of the Portrait of Innocent X (1650, Doria Pamphili Gallery, Rome) painted by Diego Velazquez. The painting is one of 45 variations of the Velazquez picture which Bacon executed throughout the 1950s and early 1960s. When quizzed as to his interest in the subject, Bacon said he merely wanted an excuse to use purple colours without being accused of being a Fauvist.

In 1962, the London Tate Gallery staged a Francis Bacon retrospective, which travelled to Germany, Italy, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Other significant exhibitions of his paintings were held at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1963); the Grand Palais in Paris (1971); the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1975); the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C. (1989); the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1990); and the Musee National d’Art Moderne, Paris (1996).

Bacon died from a heart attack on April 28, 1992, in Madrid, Spain. After his death, the contents of his chaotic studio at 7 Reece Mews, South Kensington, were donated to the Hugh Lane Gallery in Dublin.

Most Expensive Paintings By Francis Bacon include the following:

Three Studies of Lucian Freud (1969)
Sold by Christie’s New York, in November 2013, for $142 million. The world’s most expensive painting.

Triptych (1976)
Sold at Sotheby’s New York in 2008 for $86.3 million.

Three Studies for a Portrait of John Edwards (1984)
Sold at Christie’s New York in 2014 for $80.8 million.

Portrait of George Dyer Talking (1966)
Sold at Christie’s London in February 2014 for $70 million.

Study After Velazquez’ Portrait of Innocent X (1953)
Sold for $52.6 million at Sotheby’s New York, in 2007.

Three Studies for a Self Portrait (1985-6)
Sold for $34.4 million at Christie’s London in 2008.

Version No 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe (1968)
Fetched $19.3 million at Christie’s auction, New York, in 2006.

Crouching Nude (1952)
Sold for £8.3 million (Sotheby’s London, June 2011)

Study from the Human Body, Man Turning on the Light (1973)
Bought for £8 million at Christie’s London in 2007.

Portrait of George Dyer Staring into a Mirror (1967)
Fetched £4.9 million at Christie’s London, in 2005.

Mary Harriet (Mainie) Jellett (1897-1944)

Mainie_Jellett_-_'Achill_Horses',_1938,_Oil_on_canvasThe abstract artist and figure painter Mainie Jellett was born in Dublin. She studied drawing and fine art painting at the National College of Art in Dublin and under Walter Sickert at the Westminster Art School in London. It was in London that she met her lifelong friend and fellow artist Evie Hone.

Jellett had precocious talent as a painter, and while starting out as a follower of Impressionism she began – as a result of her association with the Parisian abstract painter and teacher Albert Gleizes – to develop a greater interest in modern abstract art like Cubism. Along with Evie Hone and Mary Swanzy, Jellett was one of the earliest abstract painters in the history of Irish art.

In 1923, together with a like-minded Evie Hone, she staged one of the first abstract painting exhibitions seen in Ireland at the Society of Dublin Painters. While the critics were horrified at the evident lack of “representational art”, later art experts acknowledge Jellett’s role in helping to maintain contact between European and Irish art.

Mainie Jellet continued to paint in the abstract Cubist style and to exhibit. WB Yeats opened one of her exhibitions in 1926 at the Dublin Radical Club, while she again exhibited at the Dublin Painters Gallery in 1926, 1927, 1928 and 1929. In addition, she exhibited abroad several times during the 1920s: in Paris, Versailles, Brussels, London (with the London Group), and Amsterdam.

From 1930-1937, she showed at the Royal Hibernian Academy (RHA). From 1931, she also exhibited with the Water Colour Society of Ireland (WCSI), showing over 45 paintings from 1931-1943. More exhibitions followed, at the Gate Theatre and St Stephens Green.

Throughout the 1930s she wrote about and taught art – the latter in both Dublin and Cork – playing an important role in the history of Irish painting, as an early proponent of abstraction in art and as a champion of the modern movement.

Mainie Jellett 1Although Jellett’s pictures were often attacked critically, she proved eloquent in defence of her ideas. Her resilience may have been due to her firm Christian beliefs. Indeed, a number of her paintings, though quite abstract, have religious titles and are similar to icons in tone and palate. Along with Evie Hone, Louis le Brocquy, Jack Hanlon and Norah McGuinness, Jellett helped found the Irish Exhibition of Living Art in 1943. She died a year later, aged 47.

Mainie Jellett’s work is represented in many collections including: Crawford Art Gallery, Cork; Niland Art Collection, Sligo; Butler Gallery Collection, Kilkenny; Trinity College, Dublin; The Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, Dublin; The Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin; The National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.

The auction record for a work by Mainie Jellett was set in 2006, when her oil painting, entitled Abstract Composition, was sold at Sotheby’s, in London, for £84,000.